Brazilians build a telescope to detect gamma rays from the universe

Astronomers from Brazil, Italy and South Africa have begun establishing the first of 9 Cherenkov telescopes at the Observatório del Teide in Tenerife, Spain. ASTRI small array. Together, they’ll detect the highest power radiation produced in the Universe: gamma rays.

Installation of the full array of devices ought to be accomplished in the second half of 2023, and the first astronomical photos ought to be taken in 2024. The group is accountable for constructing three of the 9 telescopes.

Brazilian researchers participated in all levels of the first telescope with the help of Fapesp.

“Brazil’s participation on this undertaking is of nice strategic significance for Brazil, because it permits the nation to develop devices for multi-frequency astronomy,” says Elizabeth de Gouveia Dal Pino, a professor at the University’s Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences. of the City of São Paulo (IAG-USP) and undertaking coordinator.

“The nation has a sure custom of creating devices for optical and radio telescopes and is now concerned in gamma-ray astronomy. In this fashion, we’re overlaying the frequencies of the spectrum from radio to gamma radiation.”

The ASTRI mini-array is a set of 9 Cherenkov telescopes, every 4 meters in diameter, designed to be related to these utilized in the “small-scale telescopes” (SSTs) that make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a collaboration that additionally contains the Dal Pino Group, the world’s largest gamma-ray astronomical observatory.

What are gamma rays?

Estimated to price €400 million (R$2.1 billion) and involving 31 international locations (together with Brazil), the CTA is to be constructed utilizing a community of about 100 Cherenkov telescopes able to detecting and imaging thunderstorms. high-energy particles of sunshine produced when gamma rays from area enter the ambiance.

When gamma rays attain Earth, they collide with air molecules and create subatomic secondary particles (electrons and positrons), which fall in cascades, also called particle showers.

These high-energy particles can journey sooner than the pace of sunshine, creating a blue glow related to the shock wave produced by a supersonic jet when it breaks the sound barrier.

The impact was named “Cherenkov radiation or gentle” after the Russian physicist Pavel Cherenkov (1904-1990) who found it experimentally. That’s why telescopes are referred to as that.

“The capability to view the world on this excessive vary of the spectrum has solely lately been made potential by water tanks delicate to Cherenkov radiation put in at the HAWC Gamma Ray Observatory and LHAASO in Mexico. [sigla em inglês de Grande Observatório de Chuveiros Aéreos de Alta Altitude, situado na China]. But the decision of the alerts obtained by these devices is low. Therefore, it’s unimaginable to make sure the place the captured sign got here from,” Dal Pino mentioned.

excessive decision

According to the researcher, CTA will increase the decision of those sources up to ten instances. This is feasible thanks to the mixture of the telescope array assortment space and three lessons of Cherenkov telescopes of various sizes unfold over two websites – the largest of which is positioned at Cerro Paranal at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). in Atacama (Chile) and one other at Los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain.

In the first section of development at Cerro Paranal, 14 medium telescopes with a diameter of 12 meters and 37 small telescopes with a diameter of 4 meters will probably be distributed over an space of ​​about three sq. kilometers. This set is primarily targeted on recording energetic and really brilliant occasions in the Milky Way.

In La Palma, Canary Islands, on this first section, 4 giant telescopes with a diameter of 23 meters in an space of ​​about 0.5 km² and one other 9 medium-sized telescopes geared toward decrease and decrease power observations. much less luminous extragalactic occasions.

Larger telescopes intention to seize phenomena that produce low, low gentle energies. Small ones, on the different hand, have the operate of monitoring very robust and brilliant occasions. And intermediate sizes bridge the hole between the two extremes.

excessive power

Through a FAPESP-supported undertaking, one other group of Brazilian researchers, led by Professor Luiz Vitor de Souza Filho of the San Carlos Institute of Physics at USP, developed a metallic construction used to home the digital camera of the medium telescopes.

“With this configuration of telescopes of three completely different sizes, gamma rays may be noticed over a very extensive power vary, between 20 gigaelectron volts (GeV) and 300 teraelectron volts (TeV),” explains Dal Pino.

According to the researcher, all the checks, beginning with the set up of the ASTRI telescope array in Tenerife in collaboration with Italian and South African astronomers, will probably be very helpful for CTA. “Testing permits adjustments to be made to right any minor structural errors.”

Construction of the CTA Norte in Cerro Paranal started earlier than the Covid-19 outbreak and is scheduled to start this 12 months in the south of Spain. The well being disaster, the September 2021 eruption of the Cambrai Vieja volcano in the Canary Islands, and the current battle in Ukraine contributed to undertaking delays.

“In current years, there have been a variety of occasions which have affected the schedule of CTA. The battle in Ukraine, for instance, has diminished the provide and contributed to the enhance in the value of metal, as a result of most of the metallic utilized in Europe is the nation,” defined Dal Pino.

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