If eating is a pleasant feeling for most people, then for others, eating some means feeling sick and having multiple stomach problems, as is the case with those who have some intolerance.
“Intolerance to food is a negative reaction of the body, mainly in the digestive system, due to the difficulty in digesting certain foods,” says Karina Gamma, a medical nutritionist at the Instituto Dent. پازانی Of cardiology. According to him, the problem may be due to the absence or malfunction of enzymes that work to “break down” certain food ingredients, such as substances in food that cause indigestion. ۔
In food intolerance, lactose intolerance is the most common, and it occurs when there is a lack of the lactase enzyme, which is responsible for the digestion of lactose, in milk and derivatives, such as cheese and yogurt. Available sugar.
But intolerance to gluten (or non-celiac gluten sensitivity), fructose (sugar found in fruits, some vegetables and grains and processed products), sucrose (table sugar) and undigested carbohydrates, which are later fermented Are going By intestinal bacteria and also known as food map (derived from milk, fruits, grains, beans and some sweets).
Anyone can have food intolerance and the factors that precede it depend on the individual’s condition, such as genetics, health status, immunological status, or self-eating, such as allergic ability, protection. And the amount of food, according to Hélcio Maranhão, gastroenterologist. Neurologist, Professor of Pediatrics at UFRN (Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte).
How to recognize if you have food intolerance?
Signs and symptoms may vary, but are usually related to the digestive system: pain or abdominal pain, gastric bloating, distemper, borborigmus (stomach sound), nausea, regurgitation, flatulence, constipation and even diarrhea. ۔ According to Auzelivia Rêgo Falcão, professor of gastrointestinal diseases at the UFRN’s Department of Integrated Medicine, there may be systemic symptoms such as irritability, fatigue, migraines, hives and joint pain.
Symptoms may begin immediately after or shortly after eating and last for hours. Relief usually occurs after a complete fermentation of the intestinal tract by bacteria or the excretion of the substance through the stool.
But it is important to point out that just feeling bad after eating does not create food intolerance. “This is because there are other digestive diseases that can cause similar symptoms, including food poisoning,” says Falcão.
In order to suspect the condition, it is important to have consistency and persistence of symptoms while eating at different times. The gastroenterologist added that “creating a food diary describing the symptoms of the day and the foods eaten that day can be helpful.”
If the person suspects that there is intolerance, it is recommended that he suspend the food in question. “The move supports symptom reduction and resolution. After a few weeks, she can eat to see if such symptoms return,” says Maranhao.
If the appearance of medical symptoms persists, the doctor or nutritionist may perform a detailed examination to confirm the diagnosis. This includes medical history research, medications or supplements being used, lifestyle habits, bowel function, and eating habits.
Can tests be done?
Some laboratory and specific tests can help with the diagnosis. Among them is the oral tolerance test, which, for example, helps identify lactose intolerance. This test allows the person to collect blood on an empty stomach, and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, to see if the fasting blood glucose has increased by at least 20 mg / dl or no. , As a result of the study substance digestion. If the blood glucose level is low, it indicates that digestion was incomplete and there was no proper absorption.
The expiration hydrogen test uses the same principle as the oral tolerance test, but instead of examining blood glucose changes, the patient flies a device that expires in fasting after consuming the tested standard solution. Measures the amount of hydrogen. Intervals of 2 to 4 hours
In an intolerant patient, the indigestible and undigested substance is fermented by bacteria in the last part of the intestine to form hydrogen. Shows. ” , Says Kareena Gamma, Master in Food Science.
There are still other tests that can be used, such as the stool acid test, commonly used in infants or children, bowel biopsy and genetic tests, more indicative when conventional tests are ineffective. ۔ For non-celiac gluten sensitivity, tests are performed to diagnose celiac disease.
Intolerance and allergies are different.
Tests are important to confirm the diagnosis, even if food intolerance is not confused with food allergies, which are different conditions.
As mentioned earlier, food intolerance consists of a lack of enzymes responsible for the digestion of a particular food, which makes it difficult to absorb. This is a condition that produces more localized symptoms associated with the gastrointestinal tract.
Allergies, on the other hand, because they are immunological manifestations, can be normal reactions or can compromise various devices such as the skin and respiratory system, in addition to the gastrointestinal tract.
How is the treatment?
According to experts who have been consulted in the report, food intolerance should be treated individually and is based on reducing or eliminating the foods that cause the problem.
Some people can afford a small amount of product, but this limit is individual. In lactose intolerance, lactose free or low lactose products should be preferred. There is also the option to use the enzyme lactase, before diluting it in liquids in the form of tablets or powders, with or with food containing lactose. It may reduce the presence of symptoms, but may not be completely effective.
Nutritionist Gamma emphasizes that “all intolerances should be properly diagnosed by a health professional so that unnecessary dietary restrictions are not imposed.”
Sources: auzelivia Trench HawkGastroenterologist, professor of gastrointestinal diseases and coloproctological From the Department of Integrated Medicine at UFRN (Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte) also works at Onofre Lopes University Hospital.HUOL/ UFRN) Helcio MaranhãoGastroenterologist and pediatric neurologist, full professor of pediatrics at UFRN, secretary of the neurology department of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics; Kareena GammaMedical Nutritionist at the Institute of Dentistry پازانی In Cardiology, and a Master’s degree in Food Science from the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at USP (University of Sao Paulo).